Aquinas was born at the end of the European Dark ages. A time of fading intellect (due to the collapse of the Roman Empire) and Christianity. He was a 13th Century monk. Aquinas read Aristotle’s work at aged 14 in the University of Naples. Aquinas particularly agreed with Aristotle’s idea that rationality (the ability to reason) was a key element of human existence. He believed that if he was able to show that Christianity was based on reason, rather than faith, he would be able to defend his religion against rising challenges.
Aquinas agreed with Aristotle’s ‘final’ and ‘efficient’ causes. The efficient cause being the agent that brings about the final cause, and the final cause being the end product. Aquinas agreed mostly with Aristotle that everything had a purpose, however Aquinas believed this purpose was given by God.
An absolutist theory: Believes that there are certain moral norms which apply to all situations at all times.
A deontological theory: Some actions are always morally right or wrong regardless of the consequences of the action.
A legalistic theory: A person is required to follow and obey religious law in order for them to gain eternal life.