British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament. Bentham was his mentor and close family friend. Credited for introducing Rule Utilitarianism.

Took a very different form of Utilitarianism than Bentham. He agreed with the principle of utility, but like many others, saw huge flaws with this Bentham’s version of Utilitarianism. He was concerned that a single person’s happiness would be overlooked by the majorities happiness. As a result of this flaw, Mill shifted the focus from the quantity of pleasure to the quality of pleasure.

He developed the ‘Higher’ and ‘Lower’ pleasure system.

Higher pleasures: Intellectual pleasures that help humans to develop their intellect. For example reading Philosophy or Poetry.

Lower pleasures: Inferior pleasures of the body, e.g. sex, eating or sleeping. Mill did however recognise that a person must first achieve the lower pleasures – they need to eat and sleep – before they can reach higher pleasures.

“It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.”