A) EXPLAIN:

i) CAUSES OF WAR

The Main factors of war include:

  1. National pride.
  2. Rivalry over land.
  3. Need for resources and wealth.
  4. Long standing hatreds and grievances.
  5. Selfishness and greed.
  6. Differing ideologies (e.g. capitalism vs communism).

AND

ii) THE CONCEPT OF HOLY WAR IN AT LEAST ONE MAJOR WORLD RELIGION

A Holy War has religion as its driving force.

There are three elements:

  1. The achievement of a religious goal.
  2. Authorized by a religious leader.
  3. A spiritual reward for those who take part.

It is generally felt that there are five causes of Holy War:

  1. To spread the faith.
  2. To restore the faith in countries that once belonged to it.
  3. To rescue believers from unbelieving countries.
  4. To recover and purify sacred places that had been captured by non-believers.
  5. To get revenge against those who had committed blasphemies against the faith or believers.

One of the most famous examples of a Holy War were the Crusades, in which Christian armies went to the Holy Land to recover Christian sacred places from the Muslims. Justified as a war, as it was fought to right the wrongs done against Christianity. The first Crusades captured Jerusalem and slaughtered all non-Christian citizens.

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