W. D. Ross developed Kant’s moral law theory. He suggested that we should follow 7 Prima Facie Duties (Duties we use when we see fit, all are equal).

The 7 Prima Facie Duties are:

  1. Fidelity – Keep your promises.
  2. Reparations – Right your wrongs.
  3. Gratitude – Repay favours.
  4. Justice – Goods distributed fairly.
  5. Beneficence – Help others.
  6. Self-Improvement – Make yourself a better person.
  7. Non-Maleficence – Bring no harm to others.

Ross’ version of the theory still has it’s strengths and weaknesses. For example, it has more freedom and simplicity than Kant. But still fails to take into consideration the inclinations of an individual (e.g. family, love, care, compassion).

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